Small Wars Journal

by Antonio Garcia

Sep 28, 2017
Antonio Garcia
Sub-Saharan Africa
United Nations

This essay explores the themes of United Nations (UN) peacekeeping offensive operations and Unexploded Ordinance (UXOs), Explosive Remnants of War (ERW) and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). As the character of conflict changes, there is an increased international focus on IEDs. The traditional threat of ERW has been further complicated by the preponderance of IEDs in war-affected countries.

Aug 09, 2017
Antonio Garcia
South Africa
United Nations