Enrique Desmond Arias is an associate professor at the John Jay Collefe of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, Madison and his B.A. from Johns Hopkins University. He is the author of Drugs and Democracy in Rio de Janeiro: Trafficking, Networks, and Public Security (University of North Carolina Press, 2006) and he co-edited Violent Democracies in Latin America (Duke University Press, 2010). He has published articles in Comparative Politics, Latin American Politics and Society, the Journal of Latin American Studies, Policing and Society, Studies in Comparative International Development, and Qualitative Sociology. The United States Fulbright Commission, the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation, the American Council of Learned Societies, and the Tinker Foundation have funded his research.